La connaissance de la façon de superviser avec succès les opérations de l'entreprise ou d'un projet est important pour tout Gestionnaire de projet. This knowledge is referred to as Operations Management Theory (OMT): the application of several practices with the goal of promoting efficiency in production.
So how do you go about learning how to successfully manage an operation?
Let’s start with why OMT is so important, and what it can do to boost a company’s productivity and return on investment.
Why Companies Love Operations Management Theory
The effective application of OMT does wonders for a business organization. In essence, TMO offre une cure de jouvence aux processus existants dans la chaîne d'approvisionnement et de gestion de la production réelle. La raison de refaire ou d'améliorer les processus existants est de vous assurer que votre entreprise produit des biens ou des services avec une efficacité maximale.
De nombreux EAs en concurrence avec les experts-comptables et d'autres types de comptables. La plupart des EA, vous pouvez aider les clients avec des déclarations de revenus ainsi que des conseils sur toute question d'ordre fiscal. Vous utiliserez également votre expertise pour représenter les clients qui ont besoin de faire face à l'IRS à quelque titre que, par exemple lors d'un audit.
toutefois, with effective operations management, businesses are able to achieve a better output and higher quality of goods and products. This gives them a competitive advantage over their rivals and increases the company’s return on investment (ROI).
What’s not to love about that?
Who’s In Charge Of Operations Management?
If a company has several departments that handle marketing, engineering, design, and sales, where would operations fall?
The answer is: everywhere!
All departments of a company fall under operations, both in the day-to-day processes of the business and the long-term goals and direction of the company. An effective Operations Manager or Chief Operating Officer (COO) has to wear quite a few hats, acting as a cross-department liaison. No part of the company operations should be unknown to the Operations Manager.
This is for an important reason. Rather than focusing on specific departmental goals, like landing X amount of sales or creating X amount of units, the Operations Manager’s job is to increase efficiency on every level of a company by using the resources on hand. These resources include people (employees, managers, and customers), technology, and equipment.
Operations Managers not only know the production aspect of the business intimately, but they also understand sales and marketing goals, financial projections and more.
Here are just a few things the Operations Manager should know about in order to be most effective at his or her position:
- They know their customers, both from the marketing and sales aspect. The Operations Manager knows who to target, why, and how. Once those customers are in the door, the Operations Manager knows how best to assist them at maximum efficiency.
- They are a very effective communicator. They must be comfortable communicating internal company information to different departments and employees, as well as communicating with customers, vendors in the supply chain, and stakeholders.
- They understand the company’s finances. Goals, cost productions, budget cuts, breakevens…the Operations Manager has a working knowledge of them all.
Fondamentalement, the Operations Manager knows the business inside and out. And because they know the business so well, they are the most effective individual to oversee and manage the application of Operations Management Theory.
Effective Supply Chain Management
At heart, OMT centers around effective management of the chain. Operations Managers carefully manage the processes that transform raw materials into components for goods or services. These components then go through the manufacturer to be produced and sold at a retailer before reaching the consumer.
But an Operations Manager’s job does not end with manufacturing; rather, he or she is familiar with and in control of every step of the process and continuously redesigns service operations to keep production at maximum efficiency.
The Theories Behind The Theory
Contrary to popular belief, OMT is not just one umbrella theory used to magically transform a business production process. Rather, it is a long-running conceptual framework that draws on existing theories and applies them to producers of goods and services.
Essentiellement, it’s been around for quite a long time!
Dans 1911, at the height of the Second Industrial Revolution, Frederick Taylor published his principles of scientific operations management. This theory included four elements:
- Developing a science of management
- Using scientific terms to define an effective worker
- Education, training, and development of workers
- Cooperation between management and staff
Modern Operations Management Theory expanded upon Taylor’s early work in the field and is now comprised of four different production systems:
- Business Process Redesign (BPR)
- Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems (RMS)
- Six Sigma
- Lean Manufacturing
These four theories are used in tandem to create an effective approach to business chains for Operations Managers.
Business Process Redesign
Business Process Redesign (BPR) first emerged as a theory in 1993. It focuses on creating business processes that are easily redesigned to keep up with changing technologies or markets.
Any area of business can be easily redesigned: manufacturing, production, logistics, customer quality, or marketing. Redesigning elements of a business process can help increase the return on investment, improve the quality of a product, or even reduce unnecessary costs.
BPR uses three core focuses to accomplish its goal:
- Scoping: When redesigning a business process, it’s important to identify the scope of the redesign. Which processes must be addressed, which would be nice to address, and which are simply not worth the effort?
- Planification: La phase de planification expose l'ordre des processus à redessiner et établit des jalons, échéanciers, Coût, et des ressources.
- Feuille de route: Une feuille de route représente l'ordre des tâches, des projets ou des programmes à accomplir, combien de temps ils devraient durer, et toutes les exigences. Contrairement à la phase de planification, la Feuille de route intègre des mécanismes de financement, ROI, et le carburant pour un programme durable.
Reconfigurable Manufacturing System
Reconfigurable Manufacturing System (RMS) Une autre théorie est centrée sur l'idée de changer rapidement ou mettre à jour un système. This theory deals with the actual manufacturing system and enables quick changes in structure as well as hardware and software components. RMS theory allows businesses to quickly adjust to capacity or system changes without too much downtime, labor, or money. This keeps the manufacturing process operating at maximum efficiency without negatively affecting customer satisfaction.
The RMS was invented in 1999 at the University of Michigan College of Engineering. The statement “exactly the capacity and functionality needed, exactly when needed” establishes the goal of the system.
The six core RMS traits are:
- Customized flexibility
An RMS may possess all or just some of these characteristics. toutefois, when an RMS has all of the above, the speed of responsiveness to unpredictable events is increased. À cause de ce, manufacturing can continue at high volume thanks to significant process improvement, resulting in high efficiency.
Six Sigma focuses on the quality of a product and the manufacturing system behind it with the help of statistics and analytics. The process was developed in the 80’s at Motorola. The word “Six” in its name comes from the control limits the system operates under; it allows for six standard deviations from the normal distribution mean.
Six Sigma is employed in a company to achieve specific financial targets. This may be increasing profits, reducing costs, or other forms of financial gain. It then follows a step-by-step sequence carefully to achieve these. Six Sigma incorporates the use of many calculations, ratios, and charts to achieve its goals.
Lean Manufacturing is an extremely popular method utilized in operations management and many business processes today. It centers around the idea of ruthlessly eliminating waste in the supply and manufacturing process to cut costs and create shorter processes.
In lean manufacturing, any resources used for a goal that doesn’t create value for a customer is a waste. What a customer will use and pay for is the benchmark for any product or service created with the lean manufacturing method. The theory begins with the customer and is incredibly useful for limiting excess motion, inventory and overproduction.
Lean manufacturing was developed by Japanese industrial engineers Taiichi Ohno and Eiji Toyoda between 1948 et 1975. It was originally called the “just-in-time production” system and made the Toyota auto plants extremely efficient and high-quality. It is now very popular in the West.
Lean Six Sigma- A Useful Hybrid
In recent years, operations management and experts have begun to combine the core purposes of Lean manufacturing and Six Sigma to create Lean Six Sigma. The idea of creating value for customers by eliminating waste (Lean) and reducing defects by problem-solving (Six Sigma) makes for a potent combination. Now, Lean Six Sigma is an accelerated process that solves problems and improves processes to become faster and more efficient.
The key principles of Lean Six Sigma are as follows:
- Prioritize customers
- Understand the process’ value stream
- Manage and improve flow of processes
- Remove non value-adding elements
- Manage factually while reducing variation
- Involve people while equipping them in the process
- Undertake significant activity improvements
The Added Value From Operations Management Theory
Théorie de la gestion des opérations apporte une valeur ajoutée incroyable aux processus de l'entreprise. Avec l'application correcte et une exploitation responsable compétent, une organisation peut atteindre ses objectifs d'affaires avec une variété de conception des processus et des initiatives reconception.
sous MSE, les processus sont améliorées et optimisées.
Les employés sont gérés de façon intelligente et stratégique pour mieux améliorer l'efficacité.
les déchets inutiles sont identifiés et éliminés.
Le résultat est une opération commerciale ensemble– depuis le début de la production à la clôture des ventes — qui fonctionne en douceur et à haute efficacité avec un minimum de déchets. À cause de ce, TMO est un ajout incroyable de valeur à toute entreprise et une compétence précieuse pour tout professionnel aspirant à maîtriser.